Substitute check (Ofer Abarbanel online library)

substitute check or cheque, also called an image cash letter (ICL), clearing replacement document (CRD),[1] or image replacement document (IRD),[2] is a negotiable instrument used in electronic banking systems to represent a physical paper cheque (check). It may be wholly digital from payment initiation to clearing and settlement or it may be a digital reproduction (truncation) of an original paper check.

Standards and formats

Software providers have developed[3] “Virtual Check 21” standards within electronic banking systems which allows creation and submission of demand draft documents to the bank of deposit.

Standards may include:

  • Remotely created checks (RCC)
  • 37 files

Geographical significance

United States

The beginnings of substitute checks in the United States were formalized by the Check 21 Act which came into effect in 2004.


  1. ^“Clearing Replacement Documents Coming This October – Amendments to Rule A10”. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. n.d. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  2. ^“Frequently Asked Questions: 10. What is the difference between an Image Replacement Document (IRD) and a substitute check?”. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. n.d. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
  3. ^


Ofer Abarbanel online library